What is Schizophrenia? Types, Symptoms, Medications, Causes, Tests, and Treatment in Jaipur

Schizophrenia is a chronic, severe mental illness characterised by abnormal behaviour, disordered thoughts, and antisocial behaviour. It is a mental disorder in which a person faces difficulty in identifying reality. Schizophrenia is associated with thought problems known as psychosis, in which the person's thinking is disconnected from reality at times. In addition to medical problems and other mental health problems, people with schizophrenia disorder are more likely to commit suicide or engage in other self-harming activities. Men tend to experience their first episode of schizophrenia between 18-25 years of age, while women peak between 25-30 years of age and again around 40 years of age. Schizophrenia that begins after 40 years of age is considered late-onset schizophrenia.

Categories of schizophrenia’s symptoms

In general, schizophrenia symptoms fall into the following categories:

Positive Symptoms

A positive symptom is a change in behaviour or thought patterns, such as delusions or hallucinations.

The following are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia

  • Hallucination- In a hallucination, something is seen, heard, tasted, smelled, or felt that does not exist outside the mind. The person who experiences hallucinations perceives them as very real even if others cannot hear the voices or sense the sensations.
  • Delusion- Delusion means a strong conviction based on an incorrect, alien, or unrealistic view of the world. A person's behaviour may be affected. It is possible to develop delusions suddenly or over weeks or months.
  • Thinking disorder (confusion)-It is not uncommon for people with psychosis to struggle with keeping track of everything they are thinking and saying. Concentration is hard for some people because their minds will wander from one idea to another.
  • Changes in behaviour and thoughts- A person's behaviour may become more disorganised and unpredictable. Many people believe that their thoughts are controlled by others, that they do not come from them, or that someone else has planted those thoughts in their minds.

Negative symptoms

The person appears emotionless, rarely engage in social interaction, and retreats from the world around them.

People with schizophrenia experience negative symptoms such as:

  • Apathy and disinterest in daily life, including relationships and sexual activity.
  • Lack of focus, not wanting to leave the house, changing sleeping patterns,
  • Feeling uncomfortable in social situations and having no idea what to say to others. Negative schizophrenia symptoms are often mistaken for deliberate arrogance or laziness, which can lead to problems with friends and family rudeness.

Types of schizophrenia disorder

There are four main types of schizophrenia, each characterised by symptoms that are unique to the individual. The following are the types of schizophrenia disorder.

Paranoid schizophrenia

Paranoid-This type of schizophrenia is characterised by delusions, hallucinations, and paranoid behaviours. Someone with paranoid traits exhibits feelings of being watched or targeted, or these traits are linked with a noteworthy individual, such as a politician or celebrity. Anger, anxiety, and hostility are common symptoms of paranoid-type schizophrenia. Mental functioning and emotional expression are usually relatively normal for the person.

Disorganized Schizophrenia

People with disorganised schizophrenia may display disorganised behaviours or strange language that is difficult to understand. There is a possibility that they will react inappropriately based on inappropriate emotions or reactions. They may neglect or disrupt daily activities such as eating, hygiene, and working because of their disorganised thoughts.

Catatonic Schizophrenia

The catatonic type of schizophrenia exhibits disturbances in movement. It is possible for people who have this type of schizophrenia to move all over the place or remain immobile. Sometimes they may remain silent for hours, while others may repeat everything you say or do. People with catatonic-type schizophrenia often exhibit these behaviours because they cannot care for themselves or complete daily tasks.

Undifferentiated schizophrenia

Undifferentiated Schizophrenia

Residual Schizophrenia

An individual who has had at least one episode of schizophrenia in the past but currently has no symptoms (hallucinations, delusion, disorganised speech, or behaviours) is classified as having residual-type schizophrenia. The person may be in incomplete remission or may at some point resume symptoms.

What Causes Schizophrenia?

There is no known cause of schizophrenia. However, schizophrenia is an actual illness with a biological basis, just like cancer and diabetes. Several factors may increase the likelihood of someone developing schizophrenia, including:

  • Heredity (genetics): Schizophrenia can run in families, which means that a greater likelihood of being diagnosed with schizophrenia may be passed from parents to children.
  • Brain chemistry and circuits -The lack of regulation of a chemical called a neurotransmitter can cause mental illness such as Schizophrenia.
  • Environment: Viral infections, marijuana exposure, and highly stressful situations can trigger schizophrenia in people whose genes predispose them to the disease. The symptoms of schizophrenia often appear during hormonal and physical changes, such as during teenage and early adult years.

What are the treatment options for schizophrenia?

Antipsychotic medications-Brain chemistry is affected by these medications. Their action affects the level of chemicals believed to be responsible for the disorder.

Psychological Therapy:

Many psychosocial treatments can aid in the treatment of behavioural, psychological, social, and occupational problems related to schizophrenia. While medications can help relieve symptoms, psychosocial treatments can help with the difficulties associated with the disorder. Therapy can also teach patients how to manage their symptoms, detect early warning signs of relapse, and create a relapse prevention plan. There are several psychosocial therapies available, including

  • Rehabilitation- This helps people living with schizophrenia live independently and function in the community.
  • Cognitive medication- It involves learning techniques to compensate for problems with information processing. To strengthen mental skills such as attention, memory, planning, organisation, drills, coaching, and computer exercises are often used.
  • Individual Psychotherapy- This can help a person better cope with their illness and develop solutions to problems
  • Family therapy- Family therapy allows people with schizophrenia and their family members to collaborate on finding solutions and reducing their difficulties.

Coordinated speciality

A combination of medication and psychosocial therapy is used in this treatment. In addition, it includes education, employment counselling, and family integration. Treatment focuses on reducing symptoms, managing periods of high activity, and improving quality of life.

Tips for tackling schizophrenia

Here are the tips that will help you to tackle schizophrenia

  • Accept your diagnosis
  • Consult your doctor
  • Set and work towards life goals
  • Meditation
  • Take your medicines timely
  • Follow the advice by your doctor

Schizophrenia Treatment in Jaipur

Although schizophrenia treatment can be available all over India, you can get the best treatment for schizophrenia only at Pink Vinayak Hospital. Dr Shri Niwash is among the top mental health specialist in India. He can deliver the best therapies and medication to get rid of schizophrenia disease. Dr Shri Niwash can provide the best mental disorder treatment in a different and modern way.

Dr Niwash only goal is to deliver quality and care treatment for the people who have a mental illness.

Dr Niwash is a qualified and experienced psychiatrist who has a vast knowledge of psychiatry. He delivers the best therapies to patients who are suffering from schizophrenia or any other mental illness. His friendly and calm behaviour makes the patient sit calmly and get treatment.

Although medication is necessary for the treatment, Dr Niwash tries to deliver 80% of mental illness treatment with therapies.

He diagnoses and treats the patient suffering from schizophrenia and guides the family on how to deal with the patient at home.